Each year during the harvest period, people suffer from CO2 poisoning…
Carbon dioxide in winemaking
CO2 (carbon dioxide, also known as carbonic gas or carbon anhydride) in an hazardous, odorless, and colorless gas that is heavier than air. In the wine growing sector, CO2 hazard happens essentially while working in vats and in buildings (cellars), especially in the lower points of the installations because CO2 is heavier than air, thus it stagnates on the ground…
During the fermentation process, a liter of wine produces 44 liters of CO2. This gas comes mainly from the alcoholic fermentation of the wort. The process begins once the grape skin splits and the temperature exceeds 12°C. Sugar also encounters yeasts that are present on the grape skin or in the air and gradually expands into alcohol.
During the fermentation process, secondary compounds will spread like carbon dioxide, ethanol (alcohol), and glycerols which bring wine its unctiousness, succinic acid, acetic acid which is the vinegar acid and aromatic compounds (the esters) like those from banana or rasberry found in young wines (Beaujolais nouveau).
See our equipment selection of gas detectors for wineries and breweries.
CO2 risks and hazards:
Over time and through experience hazards become habits for permanent workers, thus there is a attention decrease… For temporary workers, the hazard is the lack of knowledge and the ignorance of the fermentation process… CO2 hazards in figures:
- 400 ppm is the CO2 content in fresh air (and healthy)
- 1000 ppm (0.1 %) : Indoor comfort limit
- 2000 ppm (0.2 %) : Increased breathing rate
- 5000 ppm (0.5 %) : Hygiene maximum value (laboratory control)
- 10 000 ppm (1 %) : Increased heart and breathing rates
- 30 000 ppm (3 %) : Breathing troubles
- 80 000 ppm (8 %) : Cramps and fainting in a few minutes
- 200 000 ppm (20 %) : Unconsciousness and death in a few seconds
How to be protected against CO2 intoxication?
- Ensure efficient ventilation with fresh and clean air in the wine making buildings.
- Perform permanent CO2 monitoring with a fixed gas detection system or, failing that, having a portable CO2 detector
- Being equipped with quick and efficient intervention devices: rescue or evacuation self-contained breathing apparatus, harness…
- Beware of accident pile-ups… In tanks, 1 out of 3 casualties was intoxicated while rescuing!
Winegrowers be vigilant, we are waiting impatiently for your next productions !